Earthquakes and Landslides
EARTHQUAKES AND LANDSLIDES
What is an earthquake?
JANUARY 17 Location in the city of KOBE, JAPAN began to shake. It was a Natural Disaster which is an Earthquake. In the next 20 seconds, houses collapsed, gas leaks caused fires and motorways broke. It was a natural catastrophe that caused the highest material damage recorded, and 6,000 people died. Fortunately, earthquakes are rare and there are never earthquakes in many parts of the world. However, there may be earthquakes in earthquake zones at any time. When earthquakes occur in the ocean bed, they can trigger much more dangerous disasters such as tsunamis.
Earthquakes are never seen in some regions of the world. Near fault lines, the earthquake hazard is always on the horizon. This difference arises from the rocky crust of the Earth. The earth’s crust is divided into gently moving, massive plates. Earthquakes in the middle of the plates are very rare. However, if you live on the edge of the plates (where they touch each other, you have already been an earthquake specialist. The plates push or rub at each other at the point of contact, which triggers the shaking that causes the ground to shake.
The next BIG EARTHQUAKE can be at any moment.
Scientists have discovered that the centers of the earthquakes are moving along the fault lines. For decades, earthquakes are moving from one end of the fault line to the other. When there is an earthquake at the end of the fault line, new earthquakes return the same path. This information allows us to predict where the next major earthquake will be, and this is a chance to prevent a natural disaster.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EARTHQUAKE
During an earthquake, the ground can swing from one side to the other, or more or less. Sometimes the seashore rises for several meters and throws fish and corals out of the water.
Four-fifths of the world’s largest earthquakes occur in the Circle of Fire. The Circle of Fire is a 40,000 km long belt that surrounds the Pacific Ocean. The entire Circle of Fire includes Japan and the San Andreas Fault. The world’s second-largest earthquake zone starts in Southern Europe and passes through the Himalayas to Indonesia. An earthquake in this generation in 2004 triggered the Indian Ocean tsunami, one of the world’s most vital natural disasters.
The fire after the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan destroyed many houses and damaged more than the earthquake. Earthquakes can trigger huge fires by breaking gas pipes or oil tanks and causing sparks. In general, water transmission lines are damaged during an earthquake, which makes it difficult to extinguish fires.